The following resources are organized by topic in which core guidelines or significant articles selected by members are listed.  

Specific Endocrine Ethics guidelines, recommendations or opinions

The Endocrine Society Conflict of Interest Guidelines can be viewed here:

Reproductive Ethics
American Society for Reproductive Medicine Ethics Committee Opinions.

De Wert G, et al. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 23: medically assisted reproduction in singles, lesbian and gay couples, and transsexual people. Human Reproduction, Vol.29, No.9 pp. 1859 –1865, 2014

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Increased maternal cardiovascular mortality associated with pregnancy in women with Turner syndrome. Fertil Steril 2012;97:282–4

Rosenthal, MS, et al. (2013) Clinical and Professional Ethics Guidelines for the Practice of ThyroidologyThyroid, Vol 23:1203-10.

Low Risk Thyroid Cancer
Rosenthal, MS., Angelos, P., Bible, K., Fassler, CA., Finder, S., Wissner Greene, L., Tulchinsky, M. (2016). Informed Consent for Low-Risk Thyroid Cancer. International Journal of Endocrine Oncology. Vol 3:131-42.

Haymart MR. Controversies in in the management of low risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocr Rev. 2017 Aug 1; 38(4): 351–378.

Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Rosenthal, MS and Diekema, DS. (2011) Pediatric Ethics Guidelines for Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology. doi: 10.1155/2011/847603

Endocrine Clinical Practice Guidelines with Ethics Sections

A Taskforce Initiative by the American Diabetes Association is in development that will address some ethical and psychosocial issues in diabetes management.

Growth Hormone for Prader-Willi Syndrome
Deal, C. et al and The 2011 Growth Hormone in Prader-Willi Syndrome Clinical Care Guidelines Workshop Participants ((2013). Growth Hormone Research Society workshop summary: consensus guidelines for recombinant human growth hormone therapy in Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Clinical and Endocrine Metabolism (JCEM); 98(6)E1072-87.

The Endocrine Society’s Gender Dysphoria Guideline:

Full Guideline 
Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

JCEM September 2017

American Psychological Association Guidelines for Transgender

Thyroid Hormone Treatment
Jonklaas, J., and the Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement: Antonio C. Bianco, Andrew J. Bauer, Kenneth D. Burman, Anne R. Cappola, Francesco S. Celi, David S. Cooper, Brian W. Kim, Robin P. Peeters, M. Sara Rosenthal, and Anna M. Sawka. (2014) Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. Thyroid, Vol 25, Number 12: 1670-1750.

Thyroid Cancer
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
Smallridge R, Ain, KB, Asa, S, Bible K., Brierley J, Burman, K, Kebebew, E, Lee, NA, Nikiforov, Y, Rosenthal, MS, Shah, MH, Shaha, AR, Tuttle, RM. (The Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force). (2012) “American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Management of Patients with Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.” Thyroid. 22(11):1104-3

Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Wells, S. et al. (2015) and the Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Cancer. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015 Jun; 25(6):567-610.

Selected Endocrine Ethics Papers by Topic

Bell, DHS. 2001. Ethics in Diabetic Clinical Trials. Diabetes Care 2001 Mar; 24(3): 606-606.

Cox et al. Diabetes and Driving: Science, Ethics, Legality and Practice. American Journal of the Medical Practices. 2013. Volume 345, Issue 4, Pages 263–265. DOI:

Ross, LF. Minimizing Risks. The Ethics of Predictive Diabetes Mellitus Screening Research in Newborns. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(1):89-95. doi:10.1001/archpedi.157.1.89.

Murphy TF. The Ethics of Fertility Preservation in Transgender Body Modifications. Bioethical Inquiry (2012) 9:311–316

Reproductive Ethics
Anne Marie Neill & Catherine Nelson-Piercy (2001) Hazards of assisted conception in women with severe medical disease, Human Fertility, 4:4, 239-245

Thyroid Disease
Rosenthal, MS. (2014) Ethical Issues in the Management of Thyroid Disease. In: Burman, K. and Jonklaas, J. and Burman K. (Eds). Endocrine Clinics of North America. Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 545-564

Rosenthal, MS. (2007) “The Impaired Hypothyroid Patient: Ethical Considerations and Obligations.” Thyroid.,Vol 17, (12):1261-67.

Thyroid Cancer
Rosenthal, MS., Pierce, H. (2005) “Inherited Medullary Thyroid Cancer and The Duty to Warn: Revisiting Pate V. Threlkel“. Thyroid, Volume 15 (5):140-45.

Rosenthal, MS. (2015). The Limits of Autonomy in Thyroid OncologyInternational Journal of Endocrine Oncology. Vol 2, No. 1, Pages 31-37.

Rosenthal, MS, Ain KB, Angelos, P., Hatanaka, R., Motojima, M. (2017). Problematic Clinical Trials in Thyroid Cancer: the Issue of Papillary Carcinoma and Observational Approaches. International Journal of Endocrine Oncology. 4:DOI: 10.2217/ije-2017-0008.

Rosenthal, MS, Angelos, P., and Schweppe, RE. (2018). Research ethics dilemmas in thyroid disease. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity. Volume 25: 335-340, 2018 

Angelos P, Hartl DM, Shah JP, Nixon IJ, Owen RP, Rinaldo A, Rodrigo JP, Shaha AR, Silver CE, Suárez C, Ferlito A. Ethical issues in non-intervention trials for thyroid cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017 Mar 16. pii: S0748-7983(17)30368-2.  [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28343732.


Endocrine Ethics Blog.


Korytkowski, M. et al. A Pragmatic Approach to Inpatient Diabetes Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, , dgaa342,

Angelos P. Surgeons, ethics, and COVID-19: Early lessons learned. J Amer Coll Surgeons. Forthcoming 2020.

Prachand VN. Milner R, Angelos P, Posner MC, Fung JJ, Agrawal N, Jeevanandam V, Matthews JB. Medically-necessary, time-sensitive procedures:  A scoring system to ethically and efficiently manage resource scarcity and provider risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Amer Coll Surgeons, Forthcoming 2020.

Zakrison TL, Martin M, Seamon, M, Matthew J, Joseph B, Rattan R, Mendoza A, Bernard A, Gelbard R, Crandall M, Punch L, Joseph D, Bonne S, Mubang R, CcCunn M, Rogers S, Turner P, Claridge J, Henry S, de Moya M, Tseng E, Goulet N, Tung L, Kiselak E, Duncan T, Kaafarani H, Ferrada P, Foster S, Ding L, Santos A, Winfield R, Weaver J, Angelos P. COVID-19, ethics & equity. Ann Surg. Forthcoming 2020.

Bryan AF, Milner R, Roggin KK, Angelos P, Matthews JB. Unknown unknowns:  Surgical consent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ann Surg. Forthcoming 2020.

Tseng J, Roggin KK, Angelos P. Should this operation proceed? When residents and faculty disagree during the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery. Ann Surg. Forthcoming 2020.

Milner R, Donington J, Matthews J, Posner M, Turaga K, Angelos P. Is it ethically appropriate to continue surgical clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic? Surgery. Forthcoming 2020.

Eng OS, Tseng J, Ejaz A, Pawlik TM, Angelos P. Comparing apples to oranges: Ethical considerations in the COVID-19 surgical recovery. Ann Surg. Forthcoming 2020.